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On 8 September 2016 our beloved colleague and friend Bruno Capaccioni, Associate Professor in Geochemistry-Volcanology at the Università di Bologna, Italy, has left us too early.
A month after his leaving, our community is still in search of a new equilibrium.
Bruno was an active member of CVL, being the co-editor of the latest Special Volume on Volcanic Lakes in the Special Pubblications Series of the Geological Society of London. This volume will become the “Bruno issue”. Bruno animated the CVL8-2013 workshop in Japan, where he presented his original video footage on the Copahue 2012 unrest.
Bruno worked on the Argentinean crater lakes of Copahue and Peteroa volcanoes, El Chichón in Mexico, and on Costarican lakes Poás and Rincón de la Vieja. He supervised Mariano Agusto during his postdoc at Università di Bologna, and opened the doors of his lab to Dmitri Rouwet. Pioneering experiments in the lab on degassing from acidic lakes will certainly have a part II in the future.
The fluid lab at Università di Bologna will be dedicated to Bruno Capaccioni.
Besides his passion and commitment to volcanic lakes, Bruno was known as one of the most complete (fluid) geochemists, with studies ranging from gas to rock geochemistry (early work), and pure volcanology. Bruno is a pioneer of volatile organic compounds on volcanic systems. His recent work is on dissolved gases and hydrogeochemistry in wells in relation to seismic activity in Emilia-Romagna (near Bologna, Italy) after the May 2012 earthquakes, a project in which he mentored his PhD student Andrea Ricci.
By his students, Bruno will be remembered as an excellent, patient and dedicated teacher.
The Commission on Volcanic Lakes (CVL) is a scientific, non-profit organization of the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI), connecting researchers that seek to understand how volcanic lakes relate to volcanic activity and their hazards.
The citations below will soon convince you that there are innumerous reasons to deepen our knowledge on volcanic lakes, and… for the CVL community to exist.
“… are amongst the most spectacular natural features on the planet. These intersections of magmatic-hydrothermal systems and the Earth’s surface are, poetically speaking, ‘blue windows’ into the depth of a volcano.” (Christenson et al. 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… dot the landscape in many volcanic terrains. They range in size from tiny maar lakes to giant caldera lakes”. (Varekamp 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… are surface expressions of the hydrogeology of volcanic complexes.” (Mazza et al. 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… (are permanent when they) meet a combination of physical constraints: (i) the bottom of the lake should be protected against water seepage by physical sealing; (ii) the meteorological precipitation should be abundant (snowfall and its melt water, rainfall); (iii) the input of “volcanic” fluids should be sustained; and (iv) the heat input from the active volcano should be limited, to avoid drying out of the lake by evaporation (Brown et al. 1989, Pasternack and Varekamp 1997).” (Rouwet and Tassi 2011, Ann. Geophys. 54/2)
“… are classified into various groups according to their state of activity, based on their physical and chemical characteristics, such as low-activity to peak-activity lakes and no-activity lakes (Pasternack and Varekamp 1997), and CO2-dominated, quiescent and ‘active’ crater lakes (Varekamp et al. 2000).” (Rouwet and Tassi 2011, Ann. Geophys. 54/2)
“… are studied to monitor the activity of the underlying volcano or dangers associated with the lake itself; (they) provide insight into acid-water/rock interaction or (are) the shallow part of ore-depositing magmatic-hydrotermal systems. Ultimately, volcanic lakes are an expression of terrestrial degassing, and they provide clues to its magnitude.” (Pasternack and Varekamp 1997, Bull. Volcanol. 58)
“… are proto-type settings for (phreatic and phreatomagmatic) activity. Despite the fact that only 8% of the reported volcanic eruptions occurred in a subaqueous setting, they have caused 20% of fatalities (Mastin and Witter 2000). (…) A crater lake or liquid-dominated hydrothermal system, which are strong condensing media, are sensitive to sudden pressure drops when injected by gas-vapor batches, eventually leading to eruptions.” (Rouwet and Morrissey 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… derive their gases from four distinct sources: magmatic, hydrothermal, biospheric and atmospheric.” (Christenson and Tassi 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… provide the advantage to preserve eventual changes in fluid cycling with time, whereas such variations in fumarolic gases from volcano craters will be lost to the atmosphere as a ‘snapshot'”. (Rouwet and Ohba 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… are efficient traps of volcanic volatiles supplied from depth, and a lake’s water composition is considered as an indicator of the flux and composition of supplied volcanic fluids.” (Shinohara et al. 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
Lake Nyos, Cameroon. picture by D. Rouwet.
“… are known (cfr. Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun, Cameroon) for the dangerous accumulation of CO2 dissolved in stagnant bottom water, but the shallow waters that conceal this hazard are dilute and undergo seasonal changes similar to other deep crater lakes in the tropics.” (Kling et al. 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… can be ‘killer lakes’ (cfr. Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun, Cameroon) (… because they can kill) after a gas explosion or limnic eruption, a sudden release of carbon dioxide accumulated in deep water.” (Kusakabe 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer)
“… in the craters of active volcanoes and their related streams are often characterized by conditions considered extreme for life, such as high temperatures, low pH and very high concentrations of dissolved metals and minerals.” (Mapelli et al. 2015, Volcanic Lakes, Springer).